/etc/

From GhostBSD Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Welcome to Icon Disti GhostBSD.png /etc/.

Introduction[edit]

Here we find system configuration files and scripts.

Content[edit]

Directories[edit]

Directory Description
/etc/autofs/ The automounter configuration consists of the auto_master configuration file, which assigns filesystem paths to map names, and maps, which contain actual mount information. The auto_master configuration file is used by the automount(8) command. Map files are read by the automountd(8) daemon. It is possible to add custom special maps by adding them, as executable maps named special_foo, to the /etc/autofs/ directory.
/etc/bluetooth/ bluetooth configuration files
/etc/conf.d The /etc/conf.d directory generally contains initscript configuration files. This directory becomes important when using OpenRC init system (which is enabled by default).
/etc/cron.d The cron utility searches /var/cron/tabs for crontab files which are named after accounts in /etc/passwd; crontabs found are loaded into memory. The cron utility also searches for /etc/crontab and files in /etc/cron.d and /usr/local/etc/cron.d which are in a different format (see crontab(5))
/etc/defaults/ Default system configuration files. Refer to rc(8) for details.
/etc/devd The devd daemon provides a way to have userland programs run when certain kernel events happen.
/etc/devd-openrc OpenRC implementation into the TrueOS base
/etc/dma [ttps://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=dma&sektion=8&manpath=freebsd-release-ports dma] is a small Mail Transport Agent (MTA), designed for home and office use. It accepts mails from locally installed Mail User Agents (MUA) and delivers the mails either locally or to a remote destination. Remote delivery includes several features like TLS/SSL support and SMTP authentification.
/etc/gss contains: /etc/gss/mech /etc/gss/qop. The /etc/gss/mech file contains a list of installed GSS-API security mechanisms. The /etc/gss/qop file contains a list of Quality of Protection values for use with GSS-API.
/etc/init.d FreeBSD uses the traditional BSD-style init(8) as system startup. Under the BSD-style init(8), there are no run-levels and /etc/inittab does not exist. Instead, startup is controlled by [ttps://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=rc&sektion=8&manpath=freebsd-release-ports rc(8)] scripts. At system boot, /etc/rc reads /etc/rc.conf and /etc/defaults/rc.conf to determine which services are to be started. The specified services are then started by running the corresponding service initialization scripts located in /etc/rc.d/ and /usr/local/etc/rc.d/.
/etc/libmap.d no content on GhostBSD
/etc/local.d Content: 1 File READMY
/etc/mail/ Configuration files for mail transport agents such as sendmail(8).
/etc/man.d No content on GhostBSd
/etc/mtree/ mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
/etc/newsyslog.conf.d The newsyslog utility should be scheduled to run periodically by cron(8). Each file in this directory will be included by the default newsyslog.conf.
/etc/ntp The Network Time Protocol (NTP is one way to provide clock accuracy in a network.
/etc/pam.d/ configuration files for the Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) library
/etc/periodic/ scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly, via cron(8); see periodic(8)
/etc/pkg List of directories to search for repository configuration files. Default: /etc/pkg/, /usr/local/etc/pkg/repos/ pkg provides an interface for manipulating packages: registering, adding, removing and upgrading packages. pkg-static is a statically linked variant of pkg typically only used for the initial installation of pkg. There are some differences in functionality.
/etc/ppp/ ppp configuration files; see ppp(8)
/etc/rc.conf.d Content on GhostBSD only 1 file: /etc/rc.conf.d/vmware.conf
/etc/rc.d/ system and daemon startup/control scripts; see rc(8)
/etc/runlevels Content: /etc/runlevels/boot; /etc/runlevels/default; /etc/runlevels/nonetwork; /etc/runlevels/shutdown; /etc/runlevels/sysinit
/etc/security/ OpenBSM audit configuration files; see audit(8)
/etc/ssh/ OpenSSH configuration files; see ssh(1)
/etc/ssl/ OpenSSL configuration files
/etc/sysctl.d file: /etc/sysctl.d/README: Kernel system variables configuration files
/etc/syslog.d content 3 files:
  • /etc/syslog.d/ftp.conf; contains: ftp.info /var/log/xferlog
  • /etc/syslog.d/lpr.conf; contains: lpr.info /var/log/lpd-errs
  • /etc/syslog.d/ppp.conf; contains: !ppp*.* /var/log/ppp.log
/etc/unbound link to /var/unbound
/etc/X11 no content
/etc/zfs no content
Back to Icon Disti GhostBSD.pngDirectory Structure

Files[edit]

Files Description
/etc/aliases link to mail/aliasses
/etc/amd.map FreeBSD has the ability to automatically mount and unmount NFS filesystems upon demand through the automounter daemon, amd(8). See its man page for details.
/etc/auto_master The automounter configuration consists of the auto_master configuration file, which assigns filesystem paths to map names, and maps, which contain actual mount information and any direct maps that it references, and mounts or unmounts autofs(5) filesystems to match. The auto_master configuration file is used by the automount(8) command. Map files are read by the automountd(8) daemon.
/etc/blacklistd.conf The blacklistd.conf files contains configuration lines for blacklistd(8). It contains one entry per line, and is similar to inetd.conf(5). There must be an entry for each field of the configuration file, with entries for each field separated by a tab or a space.
/etc/crontab A crontab file contains instructions to the cron(8) daemon of the general form: ``run this command at this time on this date. Each user has their own crontab, and commands in any given crontab will be executed as the user who owns the crontab. Uucp and News will usually have their own crontabs, eliminating the need for explicitly running su(1) as part of a cron command.
/etc/csh.cshrc C shell with file name completion and command line editing. A login shell begins by executing commands from the system files /etc/csh.cshrc and /etc/csh.login
/etc/csh.login C shell with file name completion and command line editing
/etc/csh.logout C shell with file name completion and command line editing. When a login shell terminates it sets the logout shell variable to normal' or `automatic' as appropriate, then executes commands from the files /etc/csh.logout and ~/.logout.
/etc/ddb.conf The ddb reads the ddb.conf for instuructions. The ddb utility configures certain aspects of the ddb(4) kernel debugger from user space that are not configured at compile-time or easily via sysctl(8) MIB entries.
/etc/devd.conf devd.conf is a configuration file for devd(8). A devd(8) (device state change daemon) configuration consists of two general features, statements and comments. All statements end with a semicolon. Many statements can contain substatements, which are also terminated with a semicolon.
/etc/devd-openrc.conf OpenRC is a dependency-based init system that works with the system-provided init program, normally /sbin/init. Currently, it does not have an init program of its own. devd.conf is modified from FreeBSD to call /etc/rc.devd which is a generic hook into OpenRC.
/etc/devfs.conf The devfs.conf file provides an easy way to set ownership and permissions, or create links for devices available at boot. It does not work for devices plugged in and out after the system is up and running, e.g. USB devices. See devfs.rules(5) for setting ownership and permissions for all device nodes, and devd.conf(5) for actions to be taken when devices are attached or detached.
/etc/ devfs.rules The devfs.rules file provides an easy way to create and apply devfs(8) rules, even for devices that are not available at boot. For devices available at boot, see [devfs.conf(5).
/etc/dhclient.conf The dhclient.conf file contains configuration information for dhclient(8), the Internet Software Consortium DHCP Client.
/etc/dhcpcd.conf The dhcpcd.conf is a dhcpcd configuration fileAlthough dhcpcd can do everything from the command line, there are cases where it's just easier to do it once in a configuration file. Most of the options found in dhcpcd(8) can be used here. The first word on the line is the option and the rest of the line is the value. Leading and trailing whitespace for the option and value are trimmed. You can escape characters in the value using the \ character. Comments can be prefixed with the #character. String values should be quoted with the " character.
/etc/disktab Disktab is a simple database which describes disk geometries and disk partition characteristics. It is used to initialize the disk label on the disk. The format is patterned after the termcap(5) terminal data base. Entries in disktab consist of a number of `:'-separated fields. The first field for each entry gives the names by which a disk's entry may be selected, separated by `|' characters. The last name given should be a long name fully identifying the disk.
/etc/dumpdates The /etc/dumpdates file enables you to keep track of backups.
/etc/fbtab The fbtab file contains a number of lines specifying a device together with a list of devices with associated protections. Comments start with a `#' and extend to the end of the line.
/etc/freebsd-update.conf The freebsd-update.conf file controls the behaviour of the freebsd-update(8) utility. The file contains lines consisting of a casesensitive option name and zero or more parameters. Empty lines and any part of a line following a `#' character are ignored. Unless stated otherwise, specifying an option multiple times is an error.
/etc/fstab The file fstab contains descriptive information about the various file systems. fstab is only read by programs, and not written; it is the duty of the system administrator to properly create and maintain this file. Each file system is described on a separate line; fields on each line are separated by tabs or spaces. The order of records in fstab is important because fsck(8), mount(8), and umount(8) sequentially iterate through fstab doing their thing.
/etc/ftpusers The ftpusers file provides user access control for tnftpd(8) by defining which users may login.
/etc/gettytab gettytab is a terminal configuration data base. The gettytab file is a simplified version of the termcap(5) data base used to describe terminal lines.
/etc/group A group is a list of users. A group is identified by its group name and GID. In FreeBSD, the kernel uses the UID of a process, and the list of groups it belongs to, to determine what the process is allowed to do. Most of the time, the GID of a user or process usually means the first group in the list.

The group name to GID mapping is listed in /etc/group. This is a plain text file with four colon-delimited fields. The first field is the group name, the second is the encrypted password, the third the GID, and the fourth the comma-delimited list of members. For a more complete description of the syntax, refer to group(5).

The superuser can modify /etc/group using a text editor. Alternatively, pw(8) can be used to add and edit groups. See: 3.3.3. Managing Groups

/etc/hostid Print the numeric identifier for the current host[1]
/etc/hosts The hosts file contains information regarding the known hosts on the network. It can be used in conjunction with DNS, and the NIS maps `hosts.byaddr' and `hosts.byname', as controlled by nsswitch.conf(5). For each host a single line should be present with the following information:
  • Internet address
  • official host name
  • aliases
/etc/hosts.allow This document describes optional extensions to the language described in the hosts_access(5) document. The extensions are enabled at program build time. For example, by editing the Makefile and turning on the PROCESS_OPTIONS compile-time option.
/etc/hosts.equiv The hosts.equiv and .rhosts files contain information regarding trusted hosts and users on the network.
/etc/hosts.lpd The hosts.lpd file contains a list of hostnames or IP addresses that are allowed to use your local print services. List every hostname or IP address on a line itself.
/etc/hosts-e see skript in IP-Adressen umleiten
/etc/inetd.conf The /etc/inetd.conf file is the default configuration file for the inetd (super-server) daemon. As shipped, this file describes all currently supported QNX Neutrino TCP/IP daemons and some nonstandard pidin services. Unless you want to add or remove daemon definitions, you don't need to modify this file.
/etc/libalias.conf The libalias library is a collection of functions for aliasing and dealiasing of IP packets, intended for masquerading and network address translation (NAT).
/etc/libmap.conf The libmapfunctionality of ld-elf.so.1(1) allows dynamic object dependencies to be mapped to arbitrary names.
/etc/localtime The tzsetup utility reads a database of timezone information and presents a menu allowing the user to select a specific zone without knowing the details of the database layout. The selected zone is installed as the system default zone. The tzsetup utility also determines whether any adjustment is necessary for systems where the hardware clock does not keep UTC. /etc/localtime is the current time zone file.
/etc/locate.rc Command script for updatedb(8); locate(1) finds all files of a given name. For example, to find locate.rc , enter the following:
# locate locate.rc 

you get:

/etc/locate.rc 
/usr/share/examples/etc/locate.rc 
/usr/src/usr.bin/locate/locate/locate.rc

You'll see that a file called locate.rc can be found in three places: in the main /etc directory, in the system examples directory, and in the system source code.

/etc/login.access The login.access file specifies (user, host) combinations and/or (user, tty) combinations for which a login will be either accepted or refused.
/etc/login.conf login.conf contains various attributes and capabilities of login classes. A login class (an optional annotation against each record in the user account database, /etc/master.passwd) determines session accounting, re source limits and user environment settings. It is used by various programs in the system to set up a user's login environment and to enforce policy, accounting and administrative restrictions. It also provides the means by which users are able to be authenticated to the system and the types of authentication available. Attributes in addition to the ones described here are available with third-party packages.
/etc/login.conf.db The system does not normally read the configuration in /etc/login.conf directly, but reads the database file /etc/login.conf.db which provides faster lookups. To generate /etc/login.conf.db from /etc/login.conf, execute the following command:# cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf[2]
/etc/mac.conf The mac.conf file configures the default label elements to be used by policy-agnostic applications that operate on MAC labels. A file contains a series of default label sets specified by object class, in addition to blank lines and comments preceded by a `#' symbol.

Currently, the implementation supports two syntax styles for label element declaration. The old (deprecated) syntax consists of a single line with two fields separated by white space: the object class name, and a list of label elements as used by the mac_prepare(3) library calls prior to an application invocation of a function from mac_get(3).

/etc/mail.rc Simply sending e-mails with mailx.md Set an External SMTP Server to Relay E-Mails[3]
/etc/master.passwd The passwd files are the local source of password information. The master.passwd file is readable only by root, and consists of newline separated records, one per user, containing ten colon (`:') separated fields.
/etc/motd The file /etc/motdis normally displayed by login(1) after a user has logged in but before the shell is run. It is generally used for important system-wide announcements. During system startup, a line containing the kernel version string is prepended to this file.
/etc/netconfig The netconfig file defines a list of "transport names", describing their semantics and protocol. In FreeBSD, this file is only used by the RPC library code.
/etc/netstart netstart is the command script that is invoked by rc(8) during an automatic reboot and after single-user mode is exited; it performs network initialization.
/etc/network.subr This shell script isn't intended for human use; rather, other network configuration scripts use the subroutines defined herein to support common functions.Sourse:Absolute FreeBSD, 3rd Edition: The Complete Guide to FreeBSD, Michael W. Lucas.Verlag: No Starch Press; Auflage: 3rd (5. Oktober 2018)
/etc/networks The networks file contains information regarding the known networks which comprise the DARPA Internet. For each network a single line should be present with the following information:
  • official network name
  • network number
  • aliases
/etc/newsyslog.conf The newsyslog.conf file is used to set log file rotation configuration for the newsyslog(8) utility. Configuration may designate that logs are rotated based on size, last rotation time, or time of day.
/etc/nscd.conf The nscd.conf file is used by the nscd(8) daemon and is read on its startup. Its syntax is mostly similar to the nscd.conf syntax in Linux and Solaris. It has some differences.
/etc/nsmb.conf The nsmb.conf filecontains information about the computers, users, and shares or mount points for the SMB network protocol.
/etc/nsswitch.conf The nsswitch.conf file specifies how the nsdispatch(3) (name-service switch dispatcher) routines in the C library should operate.
/etc/ntp.conf The ntp.conf configuration file is read at initial startup by the ntpd(8) daemon in order to specify the synchronization sources, modes and other related information. Usually, it is installed in the /etc directory, but could be installed elsewhere (see the daemon's -c command line option).
/etc/openrc OpenRC is a dependency-based init system, the first process started during booting of the computer system.
/etc/openrc.shutdown openrc-shutdown is the utility that communicates with openrc-init(8) to bring down the system or instruct openrc-init to re-execute itself.
/etc/opieaccess The opieaccess file contains a list of networks that are considered trusted by the system as far as security against passive attacks is concerned.
/etc/opiekeys The opiekeys file contains user information used by the OPIE software to authenticate users.
/etc/passwd The passwd files are the local source of password information. They can be used in conjunction with the Hesiod domains `passwd' and `uid', and the NIS maps `passwd.byname', `passwd.byuid', `master.passwd.byname', and `master.passwd.byuid', as controlled by nsswitch.conf(5).
/etc/pccard_ether stop|restart]
/etc/pf.os pf.os format of the operating system fingerprints file. The pf(4) firewall and the tcpdump(1) program can both fingerprint the operating system of hosts that originate an IPv4 TCP connection.
/etc/phones The file /etc/phones contains the system-wide private phone numbers for the tip(1) program. This file is normally unreadable, and so may contain privileged information.
/etc/pkgbase.setup PkgBase comprises around 300 packages with the default build (empty src.conf(5) and make.conf(5)) for amd64. The number depends on several factors, but for most cases a runtime binary is split into several components.
/etc/portsnap.conf The portsnap.conf file controls where portsnap(8) fetches ports tree snapshots from, which RSA key should be trusted to sign the updates, and what directories should hold the compressed and live ports trees.
/etc/printcap The Printcap function is a simplified version of the termcap(5) data base used to describe line printers. The spooling system accesses the printcap file every time it is used, allowing dynamic addition and

deletion of printers. Each entry in the data base is used to describe one printer.

/etc/profile All users who have the shell as their login command have the commands in these files executed as part of their login sequence. /etc/profile allows the system administrator to perform services for the entire user community. Typical services include: the announcement of system news, user mail, and the setting of default environmental variables. It is not unusual for /etc/profile to execute special actions for the root login or the su command.
/etc/protocols The protocols file contains information regarding the known protocols used in the DARPA Internet. For each protocol a single line should be

present with the following information:

  • official protocol name
  • protocol number
  • aliases
/etc/pwd.db holds use account information
/etc/rc rc is a command interpreter and programming language similar to sh(1).

It is based on the AT&T Plan 9 shell of the same name. The shell offers a C-like syntax (much more so than the C shell), and a powerful mechanism for manipulating variables. It is reasonably small and reasonably fast, especially when compared to contemporary shells. Its use is intended to be interactive, but the language lends itself well to scripts.

/etc/rc.bsdextended [4]
/etc/rc.conf The file rc.conf contains descriptive information about the local host name, configuration details for any potential network interfaces and

which services should be started up at system initial boot time. In new installations, the rc.conf file is generally initialized by the system installation utility.

/etc/rc.conf.ghostbsd GhostBSD specific like the file /etc/rc.conf.local, is used to override settings in /etc/rc.conf for historical reasons.
/etc/rc.devd This file is part of OpenRC.[5]
/etc/rc.dynamicdiskless OpenRC for FreeBSD
/etc/rc.firewall The rc.firewall script is used to configure rules for the kernel based firewall service.
/etc/rc.initdiskless The post-boot initialization of an embedded FreeBSD system is controlled by /etc/rc.initdiskless.
/etc/rc.resume If drivers can be properly loaded and unloaded, automate this by putting the appropriate commands in /etc/rc.suspend and /etc/rc.resume.
/etc/rc.sendmail The rc.sendmail script is used by /etc/rc at boot time to start sendmail(8). It is meant to be sendmail(8) specific and not a generic script for all MTAs. It is only called by /etc/rc if the rc.conf(5) mta_start_script variable is set to /etc/rc.sendmail.
/etc/rc.shutdown See Operation of rc.shutdown
/etc/rc.subr functions used by system shell scripts
/etc/rc.suspend If drivers can be properly loaded and unloaded, automate this by putting the appropriate commands in /etc/rc.suspend and /etc/rc.resume.
/etc/regdomain.xml The regdomain.xml file describes regulations for the operation of IEEE 802.11 wireless radios.
/etc/remote remote host description file
/etc/resolv.conf The resolver(3) is a set of routines in the C library which provide ac cess to the Internet Domain Name System. The resolver configuration file contains information that is read by the resolver routines the first time they are invoked by a process. The file is designed to be human readable and contains a list of keywords with values that provide various types of resolver information.
/etc/rmt Link to /usr/sbin/rmt
/etc/rpc The rpc file contains user readable names that can be used in place of RPC program numbers. For each RPC program a single line should be present with the following information:
  • name of the RPC program
  • RPC program number
  • aliases
/etc/services The services file contains information regarding the known services available in the Internet. For each service a single line should be present with the following information:
  • official service name
  • port number
  • protocol name
  • aliases
/etc/shells The shells file contains a list of the shells on the system. For each shell a single line should be present, consisting of the shell's path, relative to root.
/etc/snmpd.config snmpd.conf is the configuration file which defines how the Net-SNMP SNMP agent operates. These files may contain any of the directives found in the DIRECTIVES section below. This file is not required for the agent to operate and respond to requests.
/etc/spwd.db secure password database file [6]
/etc/sysctl.conf The /etc/sysctl.conf file is read in when the system goes into multi-user mode to set default settings for the kernel. The /etc/sysctl.conf is in

the format of the sysctl(8) command, i.e. sysctl_mib=value

/etc/syslog.conf The syslog.conf file is the configuration file for the syslogd(8) program. It consists of blocks of lines separated by program and hostname specifications (separations appear alone on their lines), with each line containing two fields: the selector field which specifies the types of messages and priorities to which the line applies, and an action field which specifies the action to be taken if a message syslogd(8) receives matches the selection criteria. The selector field is separated from the action field by one or more tab characters or spaces.
/etc/termcap Link to /usr/misc/termcap
/etc/termcap.small on GitHub
/etc/ttys The file ttys contains information that is used by various routines to initialize and control the use of terminal special files. This information is read with the getttyent(3) library routines.
Back to Icon Disti GhostBSD.pngDirectory Structure