Difference between revisions of "/sbin/"

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{{Navbar System Administation Utilities}}
 
{{Navbar System Administation Utilities}}
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==Introduction==
 
==Introduction==
  
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|/sbin/pfctl||The [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=pfctl&apropos=0&sektion=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports&arch=default&format=html pfctl] utility communicates with the packet filter device using the ioctl interface described in [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=pf&sektion=4&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports pf(4)].  It allows ruleset and parameter configuration and retrieval of status information from the packet filter.
 
|/sbin/pfctl||The [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=pfctl&apropos=0&sektion=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports&arch=default&format=html pfctl] utility communicates with the packet filter device using the ioctl interface described in [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=pf&sektion=4&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports pf(4)].  It allows ruleset and parameter configuration and retrieval of status information from the packet filter.
 
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|/sbin/pflogd||[https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=pflogd&apropos=0&sektion=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports&arch=default&format=html pflogd] is a background daemon which reads packets logged by [[https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=pf&sektion=4&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports pf(4)] to a [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=pflog&sektion=4&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports  pflog(4)] interface, normally pflog0, and writes the packets to a logfile    (normally /var/log/pflog) in tcpdump(1) binary format.  These logs can be      reviewed later using the -r option of [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=tcpdump&sektion=1&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports tcpdump(1)], hopefully offline in      case there are bugs in the packet parsing code of [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=tcpdump&sektion=1&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports tcpdump(1)].
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|/sbin/pflogd||[https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=pflogd&apropos=0&sektion=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports&arch=default&format=html pflogd] is a background daemon which reads packets logged by [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=pf&sektion=4&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports pf(4)] to a [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=pflog&sektion=4&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports  pflog(4)] interface, normally pflog0, and writes the packets to a logfile    (normally /var/log/pflog) in tcpdump(1) binary format.  These logs can be      reviewed later using the -r option of [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=tcpdump&sektion=1&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports tcpdump(1)], hopefully offline in      case there are bugs in the packet parsing code of [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=tcpdump&sektion=1&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports tcpdump(1)].
 
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|/sbin/ping||The [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ping&apropos=0&sektion=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports&arch=default&format=html ping] utility uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST datagram  to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway.  ECHO_REQUEST      datagrams ("pings") have an IP and ICMP header, followed by a "struct      timeval" and then an arbitrary number of "pad" bytes used to fill out the    packet.
 
|/sbin/ping||The [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ping&apropos=0&sektion=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports&arch=default&format=html ping] utility uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST datagram  to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway.  ECHO_REQUEST      datagrams ("pings") have an IP and ICMP header, followed by a "struct      timeval" and then an arbitrary number of "pad" bytes used to fill out the    packet.
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|/sbin/resolvconf||[https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=resolvconf&apropos=0&sektion=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports&arch=default&format=html resolvconf] manages [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=resolv.conf&sektion=5&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports resolv.conf(5)] files from multiple sources, such as      DHCP and VPN clients.  Traditionally, the host runs just one client and    that updates /etc/resolv.conf.  More modern systems frequently have wired    and wireless interfaces and there is no guarantee both are on the same    network.  With the advent of VPN and other types of networking daemons,    many things now contend for the contents of /etc/resolv.conf.
 
|/sbin/resolvconf||[https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=resolvconf&apropos=0&sektion=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports&arch=default&format=html resolvconf] manages [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=resolv.conf&sektion=5&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports resolv.conf(5)] files from multiple sources, such as      DHCP and VPN clients.  Traditionally, the host runs just one client and    that updates /etc/resolv.conf.  More modern systems frequently have wired    and wireless interfaces and there is no guarantee both are on the same    network.  With the advent of VPN and other types of networking daemons,    many things now contend for the contents of /etc/resolv.conf.
 
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|/sbin/restore||The restore utility performs the inverse function of [ttps://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=dump&sektion=8&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports dump(8)].  A full      backup of a file system may be restored and subsequent incremental backups layered on top of it. Single files and directory subtrees may be re    stored from full or partial backups.  The restore utility works across a    network; to do this see the -f and -P flags described below.  Other argu    ments to the command are file or directory names specifying the files    that are to be restored.  Unless the -h flag is specified (see below),    the appearance of a directory name refers to the files and (recursively)    subdirectories of that directory.
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|/sbin/restore||The restore utility performs the inverse function of [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=dump&sektion=8&apropos=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports dump(8)].  A full      backup of a file system may be restored and subsequent incremental backups layered on top of it. Single files and directory subtrees may be re    stored from full or partial backups.  The restore utility works across a    network; to do this see the -f and -P flags described below.  Other argu    ments to the command are file or directory names specifying the files    that are to be restored.  Unless the -h flag is specified (see below),    the appearance of a directory name refers to the files and (recursively)    subdirectories of that directory.
 
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|/sbin/rmd160||The [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=md5&apropos=0&sektion=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports&arch=default&format=html md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, sha512t256, rmd160,  skein256, skein512 and skein1024] utilities take as input a message of arbitrary length and produce as output a "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input.  It is conjectured that it is computationally in    feasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to  produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest.
 
|/sbin/rmd160||The [https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=md5&apropos=0&sektion=0&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports&arch=default&format=html md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, sha512t256, rmd160,  skein256, skein512 and skein1024] utilities take as input a message of arbitrary length and produce as output a "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input.  It is conjectured that it is computationally in    feasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to  produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest.

Latest revision as of 09:47, 14 April 2020

Welcome to Icon Disti GhostBSD.png /sbin/.
System Administration Utilities
/bin/ Tools and applications /sbin/ System Administration Utilities
/usr/bin/ Tools and applications /usr/sbin/ System tools
/usr/local/bin/ Tools and applications /usr/local/sbin/ System tools
Back to the Icon Disti GhostBSD.pngSystem

Introduction[edit]

System programs and administration utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments. With other words: What works on your system and what can you use to get information about your system. There are a lot of interesting commands. All connected to the Man Pages and to this wiki for more information.

Content[edit]

Utility Description
/sbin/adjkerntz The adjkerntz utility maintains the proper relationship between the kernel clock, which is always set to UTC and the CMOS clock, which may be set to local time.
/sbin/bectl Utility to manage boot environments on ZFS
/sbin/bsdlabel read and write BSD label
/sbin/camcontrol CAM control program The camcontrol utility is designed to provide a way for users to access and control the FreeBSD CAM subsystem.
/sbin/ccdconfig The ccdconfig utility is used to dynamically configure and unconfigure concatenated disk devices, or ccds. For more information about the ccd, see ccd(4).
/sbin/clri The clri utility is obsoleted for normal file system repair work by fsck(8).
/sbin/comcontrol The comcontrol utility is used to examine and modify some of the special characteristics of the specified tty device.
/sbin/conscontrol The conscontrol utility is used to examine and modify the physical devices which back the virtual console devices. If no arguments (or only the list command) are specified, the current console settings are shown.
/sbin/ddb The ddb utility configures certain aspects of the ddb(4) kernel debugger from user space that are not configured at compile-time or easily via sysctl(8) MIB entries.
/sbin/decryptcore The decryptcore utility first decrypts keyfile using privatekeyfile and then uses the resulting key to decrypt encryptedcore saved by savecore(8). The result is saved in core.
/sbin/devd The devd daemon provides a way to have userland programs run when certain kernel events happen.
/sbin/devfs The devfs utility provides an interface to manipulate properties of

devfs(5) mounts.

/sbin/devmatch The devmatch utility, without any arguments, prints all the kernel modules it has found for all the unattached, enabled devices in the system.
/sbin/dhclient The dhclient utility provides a means for configuring network interfaces using DHCP, BOOTP, or if these protocols fail, by statically assigning an address.
/sbin/dhclient-script The DHCP client network configuration script is invoked from time to time by dhclient(8). This script is used by the DHCP client to set each interface's initial configuration prior to requesting an address, to test the address once it has been offered, and to set the interface's final configuration once a lease has been acquired. If no lease is acquired, the script is used to test predefined leases, if any, and also called once if no valid lease can be identified.
/sbin/dhcpcd dhcpcd is an implementation of the DHCP client specified in RFC 2131. dhcpcd gets the host information (IP address, routes, etc) from a DHCP server and configures the network interface of the machine on which it is running.
/sbin/disklabel The bsdlabel utility installs, examines or modifies the BSD label on a disk partition, or on a file containing a partition image. In addition, bsdlabel can install bootstrap code.
/sbin/dmesg The dmesg utility displays the contents of the system message buffer. If the -M option is not specified, the buffer is read from the currently running kernel via the sysctl(3) interface. Otherwise, the buffer is read from the specified core file, using the name list from the specified kernel image (or from the default image).
/sbin/dump The dump utility examines files on a file system and determines which files need to be backed up. These files are copied to the given disk, tape or other storage medium for safe keeping (see the -f option below for doing remote backups). A dump that is larger than the output medium is broken into multiple volumes. On most media the size is determined by writing until an end-of-media indication is returned. This can be enforced by using the -a option.
/sbin/dumpfs The dumpfs utility prints out the UFS super block and cylinder group in formation for the file system or special device specified, unless the -f, -l or -m flag is specified. The listing is very long and detailed. This command is useful mostly for finding out certain file system information

such as the file system block size and minimum free space percentage.

/sbin/dumpon The dumpon utility is used to configure where the kernel can save a crash dump in the case of a panic.

System administrators should typically configure dumpon in a persistent fashion using the rc.conf(5) variables dumpdev and dumpon_flags. For more information on this usage, see rc.conf(5).

/sbin/e2fsck e2fsck is used to check the ext2/ext3/ext4 family of file systems. For ext3 and ext4 filesystems that use a journal, if the system has been shut down uncleanly without any errors, normally, after replaying the committed transactions in the journal, the file system should be marked as clean. Hence, for filesystems that use journalling, e2fsck will normally replay the journal and exit, unless its superblock indicates that further checking is required.
/sbin/etherswitchcfg The etherswitchcfg utility is used to configure an Ethernet switch built into the system.
/sbin/fastboot fastboot is a program used to manipulate (list, install, erase) the non-volatile memory such as flash filesystem partitions on devices that adhere to the fastboot protocol, via a USB connection from a host computer.
/sbin/fasthalt The halt and reboot utilities flush the file system cache to disk, send all running processes a SIGTERM (and subsequently a SIGKILL) and, respectively, halt or restart the system. The action is logged, including entering a shutdown record into the user accounting database.
/sbin/fdisk fdisk is a PC slice table maintenance utility
/sbin/ffsinfo ffsinfo dumps all meta information of an existing ufs file system.
/sbin/fsck The fsck utility invokes file system-specific programs to check the special devices listed in the fstab(5) file or in the command line for consistency.
/sbin/fsck_4.2bsd man; GitHub
/sbin/fsck_ext2fs fsck_ext2fs maps the traditional FreeBSD fsck_ffs options to options with the same functionality for e2fsck, runs e2fsck and then maps its exit status to values that FreeBSD understands. e2fsck is a utility to check and repair ext2 and ext3 file systems.
/sbin/fsck_ffs man; GitHub
/sbin/fsck_msdosfs The fsck_msdosfs utility verifies and repairs FAT file systems (more commonly known as DOS file systems). See also mount_msdosfs
/sbin/fsck_ufs man; GitHub
/sbin/fsdb The fsdb utility opens fsname (usually a raw disk partition) and runs a command loop allowing manipulation of the file system's inode data.
/sbin/fsirand The fsirand utility installs random generation numbers on all the inodes for each file system specified on the command line by special. This in creases the security of NFS-exported file systems by making it difficult

to ``guess filehandles.

/sbin/gbde gbde is an operation and management utility for Geom Based Disk Encryption
/sbin/gcache The gcache utility is used to control GEOM cache, which can speed up read performance by sending fixed size read requests to its consumer. It has been developed to address the problem of a horrible read performance of a 64k blocksize FS residing on a RAID3 array with 8 data components, where a single disk component would only get 8k read requests, thus effectively killing disk performance under high load.
/sbin/gconcat The gconcat utility is used for device concatenation configuration. The concatenation can be configured using two different methods: ``manual or ``automatic. When using the ``manual method, no metadata are stored on the devices, so the concatenated device has to be configured by hand every time it is needed. The ``automatic method uses on-disk metadata to detect devices. Once devices are labeled, they will be automatically detected and configured.
/sbin/geli geli is a control utility for the cryptographic GEOM class
/sbin/geom The geom utility is used to control various GEOM classes.
/sbin/ggatec The ggatec utility is a network client for the GEOM Gate class. It is responsible for the creation of ggate devices and forwarding I/O requests between the GEOM Gate kernel subsystem and the ggated(8) network daemon.
/sbin/ggated The ggated utility is a network server for the GEOM Gate class. It runs on a server machine to service GEOM Gate requests from workers placed on a client machine. Keep in mind, that connections between ggatec(8) and ggated are not encrypted.
/sbin/ggatel The ggatel utility is a local GEOM Gate class consumer. It can be used as a replacement for md(4) memory disk devices or as a "GEOMificator" for non GEOMaware devices, but it was mainly created as an example on how to use and how to communicate with the GEOM Gate kernel subsystem.
/sbin/gjournal The gjournal utility is used for journal configuration on the given GEOM provider.
/sbin/glabel The glabel utility is used for GEOM provider labelization. A label can be set up on a GEOM provider in two ways: "manual" or "automatic". When using the "manual" method, no metadata are stored on the devices, so a

label has to be configured by hand every time it is needed. The "automatic" method uses on-disk metadata to store the label and detect it automatically in the future.

/sbin/gmirror The gmirror utility is used for mirror (RAID1) configurations. After a mirror's creation, all components are detected and configured automatically. All operations like failure detection, stale component detection, rebuild of stale components, etc. are also done automatically.
/sbin/gmountver The gmountver utility is used to control the mount verification GEOM class. When configured, it passes all the I/O requests to the underlying provider. When the underlying provider disappears - for example because the disk device got disconnected - it queues all the I/O requests and waits for the provider to reappear. When that happens, it attaches to it and sends the queued requests.
/sbin/gmultipath The gmultipath utility is used for device multipath configuration.
/sbin/gnop The gnop utility is used for setting up transparent providers on existing ones. Its main purpose is testing other GEOM classes, as it allows forced provider removal and I/O error simulation with a given probability. It also gathers statistics on the number of read, write, delete, getattr, flush, and other requests, and the number of bytes read and written.
/sbin/gpart The gpart utility is used to partition GEOM providers, normally disks.
/sbin/graid The graid utility is used to manage software RAID configurations, sup ported by the GEOM RAID class.
/sbin/graid3 The graid3 utility is used for RAID3 array configuration. After a device is created, all components are detected and configured automatically.
/sbin/growfs The growfs utility makes it possible to expand an UFS file system. Before running growfs the partition or slice containing the file system must be extended using gpart(8).
/sbin/gsched The gsched utility (also callable as geom sched ...) changes the scheduling policy of the requests going to a provider.
/sbin/gshsec The gshsec utility is used for setting up a device which contains a shared secret. The secret is shared between the given providers. To collect the secret, all providers are needed.
/sbin/gstripe The gstripe utility is used for setting up a stripe on two or more disks. The striped device can be configured using two different methods: "manual" or "automatic". When using the "manual" method, no metadata are stored on the devices, so the striped device has to be configured by hand every time it is needed. The "automatic" method uses on-disk metadata to detect devices. Once devices are labeled, they will be automatically detected and configured.
/sbin/gvinum The gvinum utility is a Logical Volume Manager control program.
/sbin/gvirstor The gvirstor utility is used for setting up a virtual storage device of arbitrary large size (for example, several TB), consisting of an arbitrary number of physical storage devices with the total size which is equal to or smaller than the virtual size.
/sbin/halt The halt and reboot utilities flush the file system cache to disk, send all running processes a SIGTERM (and subsequently a SIGKILL) and, respectively, halt or restart the system. The action is logged, including entering a shutdown record into the user accounting database
/sbin/hastctl The hastctl utility is used to control the behaviour of the hastd(8) daemon.
/sbin/hastd The hastd daemon is responsible for managing highly available GEOM providers. hastd allows the transpaent storage of data on two physically separated machines connected over a TCP/IP network. Only one machine (cluster node) can actively use storage provided by hastd. This machine is called primary. The hastd daemon operates on block level, which makes it transparent to file systems and applications.
/sbin/ifconfig The ifconfig utility is used to assign an address to a network interface and/or configure network interface parameters. The ifconfig utility must be used at boot time to define the network address of each interface present on a machine; it may also be used at a later time to redefine an interface's address or other operating parameters.
/sbin/init The init utility is the last stage of the boot process.
/sbin/ipf ipf opens the filenames listed (treating "-" as stdin) and parses the file for a set of rules which are to be added or removed from the packet filter rule set.
/sbin/ipfs ipfs allows state information created for NAT entries and rules using keep state to be locked (modification prevented) and then saved to disk, allowing for the system to experience a reboot, followed by the restoration of that information, resulting in connections not being interrupted.
/sbin/ipfstat ipfstat examines /dev/kmem using the symbols _fr_flags, _frstats, _filterin, and _filterout. To run and work, it needs to be able to read both /dev/kmem and the kernel itself. The kernel name defaults to

/boot/kernel/kernel.

/sbin/ipfw ipfw User interface for firewall, traffic shaper, packet scheduler, in-kernel NAT.
/sbin/ipmon ipmon opens /dev/ipl for reading and awaits data to be saved from the acket filter. The binary data read from the device is reprinted in human readable form, however, IP#'s are not mapped back to hostnames, nor are ports mapped back to service names. The output goes to standard output by default or a filename, if given on the command line.

Should the -s option be used, output is instead sent to syslogd(8). Messages sent via syslog have the day, month and year removed from the message, but the time (including microseconds), as recorded in the log, is still included.

/sbin/ipnat ipnat opens the filename given (treating "-" as stdin) and parses the file for a set of rules which are to be added or removed from the IP NAT.
/sbin/ippool Ippool is used to manage information stored in the IP pools subsystem of IPFilter. Configuration file information may be parsed and loaded into the kernel, currently configured pools removed or changed as well as inspected.
/sbin/iscontrol This command, along with its kernel counterpart iscsi_initiator(4), is obsolete. Users are advised to use iscsictl(8) instead.
/sbin/kldconfig The kldconfig utility displays or modifies the search path used by the kernel when loading modules using the kldload(8) utility or the kldload(2) syscall.
/sbin/kldload The kldload utility loads file.ko into the kernel using the kernel linker. Note that if multiple modules are specified then an attempt will be made to load them all, even if some fail. The .ko extension name is not mandatory when loading a given module using kldload. It does not hurt to specify it though.
/sbin/kldstat The kldstat utility displays the status of any files dynamically linked into the kernel.
/sbin/kldunload The kldunload utility unloads a file which was previously loaded with kldload(8).
/sbin/ldconfig The ldconfig utility is used to prepare a set of "hints" for use by the dynamic linker to facilitate quick lookup of shared libraries available in multiple directories.
/sbin/md5 The md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, sha512t256, rmd160, skein256, skein512 and skein1024 utilities take as input a message of arbitrary length and produce as output a "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It is conjectured that it is computationally in feasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest.
/sbin/mdconfig The mdconfig utility creates and controls md(4) devices.
/sbin/mdmfs The mdmfs utility is designed to be a work-alike and look-alike of the deprecated mount_mfs(8). The end result is essentially the same, but is accomplished in a completely different way. Based on md-device, the

mdmfs utility either creates a tmpfs(5) filesystem, or it configures an md(4) disk using mdconfig(8), puts a UFS file system on it (unless -P was specified) using newfs(8), and mounts it using mount(8). It can handle geom_uzip(4) compressed disk images, as long as the kernel supports this GEOM class. All the command line options are passed to the appropriate.

/sbin/mknod The mknod utility creates device special files.
/sbin/mksnap_ffs The mksnap_ffs utility creates a snapshot named snapshot_name.
/sbin/mount The mount utility calls the nmount(2) system call to prepare and graft a special device or the remote node (rhost:path) on to the file system tree at the point node. If either special or node are not provided, the appropriate information is taken from the fstab(5) file.

The system maintains a list of currently mounted file systems. If no arguments are given to mount, this list is printed.

/sbin/mount_cd9660 The mount_cd9660 utility attaches the ISO-9660 file system residing on the device special to the global file system namespace at the location indicated by node. This command is normally executed by mount(8) at boot time.
/sbin/mount_fusefs Basic usage is to start a fuse daemon on the given special file. In practice, the daemon is assigned a special file automatically, which can then be indentified via [1]. That special file can then be mounted by mount_fusefs.
/sbin/mount_mfs The mdmfs utility configures an md(4) disk using mdconfig(8), puts a UFS file system on it (unless -P was specified) using newfs(8), and mounts it using mount(8). It can handle geom_uzip(4) compressed disk images, as long as the kernel supports this GEOM class. All the command line options are passed to the appropriate program at the appropriate stage in order to achieve the desired effect.
/sbin/mount_msdosfs mount_msdosfs can mount an MS-DOS file system
/sbin/mount_nfs The mount_nfs utility calls the nmount(2) system call to prepare and graft a remote NFS file system (rhost:path) on to the file system tree at the point node.
/sbin/mount_nullfs mount_nullfs mounts a loopback file system sub-tree; demonstrate the use of a null file system layer
/sbin/mount_udf The mount_udf utility attaches the UDF file system residing on the device special to the global file system namespace at the location indicated by node.
/sbin/mount_unionfs The mount_unionfs utility attaches directory above uniondir in such a way that the contents of both directory trees remain visible. By default, directory becomes the upper layer and uniondir becomes the lower layer.
/sbin/natd The natd utility provides a Network Address Translation facility for use with divert(4) sockets under FreeBSD.
/sbin/newfs The newfs utility is used to initialize and clear file systems before first use.
/sbin/newfs_msdos The newfs_msdos utility creates a FAT12, FAT16, or FAT32 file system on device or file named special, using disktab(5) entry disktype to determine geometry, if required.
/sbin/nextboot The nextboot utility allows specifying some combination of an alternate kernel, boot flags and kernel environment for the next time the machine is booted. Once the loader(8) loads in the new kernel information, it is deleted so in case the new kernel hangs the machine, once it is rebooted, the machine will automatically revert to its previous configuration.
/sbin/nfsiod The nfsiod utility controls the maximum number of nfsiod kernel processes which run on an NFS client machine to service asynchronous I/O requests to its server. Having nfsiod kernel processes improves performance but is not required for correct operation.
/sbin/nologin The nologin utility displays a message that an account is not available and exits non-zero. It is intended as a replacement shell field for accounts that have been disabled.
/sbin/nos-tun The nos-tun utility is used to establish an nos style tunnel, (also known as ka9q or IP-IP tunnel) using a tun(4) kernel interface.
/sbin/nvmecontrol NVM Express (NVMe) is a storage protocol standard, for SSDs and other high-speed storage devices over PCI Express.
/sbin/openrc The OpenRC is a dependency-based init system that works with the system-provided init program, normally /sbin/init. Currently, it does not have an init program of its own. A good documentation you will find on gentoo
/sbin/openrc-run openrc-run is basically an interpreter for shell scripts which provides an easy interface to the often complex system commands and daemons. When a service runs a command it first loads its multiplexed configuration file, then its master configuration file, then /etc/rc.conf and finally the script itself. At this point openrc-run then runs the command given.
/sbin/pfctl The pfctl utility communicates with the packet filter device using the ioctl interface described in pf(4). It allows ruleset and parameter configuration and retrieval of status information from the packet filter.
/sbin/pflogd pflogd is a background daemon which reads packets logged by pf(4) to a pflog(4) interface, normally pflog0, and writes the packets to a logfile (normally /var/log/pflog) in tcpdump(1) binary format. These logs can be reviewed later using the -r option of tcpdump(1), hopefully offline in case there are bugs in the packet parsing code of tcpdump(1).
/sbin/ping The ping utility uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway. ECHO_REQUEST datagrams ("pings") have an IP and ICMP header, followed by a "struct timeval" and then an arbitrary number of "pad" bytes used to fill out the packet.
/sbin/ping6 The ping6 utility uses the ICMPv6 protocol's mandatory ICMP6_ECHO_REQUEST datagram to elicit an ICMP6_ECHO_REPLY from a host or gateway. ICMP6_ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (``pings) have an IPv6 header, and ICMPv6

header formatted as documented in RFC2463.

/sbin/poweroff The shutdown utility provides an automated shutdown procedure for super users to nicely notify users when the system is shutting down, saving them from system administrators, hackers, and gurus, who would otherwise

not bother with such niceties.

/sbin/quotacheck The quotacheck utility examines each file system, builds a table of cur rent disk usage, and compares this table against that recorded in the disk quota file for the file system.
/sbin/rc rc is a command interpreter and programming language similar to sh(1).

It is based on the AT&T Plan 9 shell of the same name. The shell offers a C-like syntax (much more so than the C shell), and a powerful mechanism for manipulating variables. It is reasonably small and reasonably fast, especially when compared to contemporary shells. Its use is intended to be interactive, but the language lends itself well to scripts.

/sbin/rc-service OpenRC services.
/sbin/rc-update update OpenRC
/sbin/rcorder The rcorder utility is designed to print out a dependency ordering of a set of interdependent files. Typically it is used to find an execution sequence for a set of shell scripts in which certain files must be executed before others.
/sbin/rdump The dump utility examines files on a file system and determines which files need to be backed up. These files are copied to the given disk, tape or other storage medium for safe keeping (see the -f option below

for doing remote backups).

/sbin/reboot The halt and reboot utilities flush the file system cache to disk, send all running processes a SIGTERM (and subsequently a SIGKILL) and, respectively, halt or restart the system. The action is logged, including entering a shutdown record into the user accounting database
/sbin/recoverdisk The recoverdisk utility reads data from the source file until all blocks could be successfully read. If destination was specified all data is being written to that file. It starts reading in multiples of the sector size. Whenever a block fails, it is put to the end of the working queue and will be read again, possibly with a smaller read size.
/sbin/resolvconf resolvconf manages resolv.conf(5) files from multiple sources, such as DHCP and VPN clients. Traditionally, the host runs just one client and that updates /etc/resolv.conf. More modern systems frequently have wired and wireless interfaces and there is no guarantee both are on the same network. With the advent of VPN and other types of networking daemons, many things now contend for the contents of /etc/resolv.conf.
/sbin/restore The restore utility performs the inverse function of dump(8). A full backup of a file system may be restored and subsequent incremental backups layered on top of it. Single files and directory subtrees may be re stored from full or partial backups. The restore utility works across a network; to do this see the -f and -P flags described below. Other argu ments to the command are file or directory names specifying the files that are to be restored. Unless the -h flag is specified (see below), the appearance of a directory name refers to the files and (recursively) subdirectories of that directory.
/sbin/rmd160 The md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, sha512t256, rmd160, skein256, skein512 and skein1024 utilities take as input a message of arbitrary length and produce as output a "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It is conjectured that it is computationally in feasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest.
/sbin/route The route utility is used to manually manipulate the network routing tables. It normally is not needed, as a system routing table management daemon, such as routed(8), should tend to this task.
/sbin/routed The routed utility is a daemon invoked at boot time to manage the network routing tables. It uses Routing Information Protocol, RIPv1 (RFC 1058), RIPv2 (RFC 1723), and Internet Router Discovery Protocol (RFC 1256) to maintain the kernel routing table. The RIPv1 protocol is based on the reference 4.3BSD daemon.
/sbin/rrestore The restore utility performs the inverse function of dump(8). A full backup of a file system may be restored and subsequent incremental back ups layered on top of it. Single files and directory subtrees may be re stored from full or partial backups. The restore utility works across a network; to do this see the -f and -P flags described below. Other argu ments to the command are file or directory names specifying the files that are to be restored. Unless the -h flag is specified (see below), the appearance of a directory name refers to the files and (recursively) subdirectories of that directory. restore may also be invoked as rrestore.
/sbin/rtquery The rtquery utility is used to query a RIP network routing daemon, such as routed(8), for its routing table by sending a request or poll command. The routing information in any routing response packets returned is dis played numerically and symbolically.
/sbin/rtsol rtsold is the daemon program to send ICMPv6 Router Solicitation messages on the specified interfaces. If a node (re)attaches to a link, rtsold sends some Router Solicitations on the link destined to the link-local scope all-routers multicast address to discover new routers and to get non link-local addresses.
/sbin/runscript runscript is a simple script interpreter that can be called from within the minicom communications program to automate tasks like logging in to a Unix system or your favorite BBS.
/sbin/savecore The savecore utility copies a core dump into directory, or the current working directory if no directory argument is given, and enters a reboot message and information about the core dump into the system log.
/sbin/setkey The setkey utility adds, updates, dumps, or flushes Security Association Database (SAD) entries as well as Security Policy Database (SPD) entries in the kernel.
/sbin/sha1 The md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, sha512t256, rmd160, skein256, skein512 and skein1024 utilities take as input a message of arbitrary length and produce as output a "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It is conjectured that it is computationally in feasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest.
/sbin/sha224 The md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, sha512t256, rmd160, skein256, skein512 and skein1024 utilities take as input a message of arbitrary length and produce as output a "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It is conjectured that it is computationally in feasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest.
/sbin/sha256 The md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, sha512t256, rmd160, skein256, skein512 and skein1024 utilities take as input a message of arbitrary length and produce as output a "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It is conjectured that it is computationally in feasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest.
/sbin/sha384 The md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, sha512t256, rmd160, skein256, skein512 and skein1024 utilities take as input a message of arbitrary length and produce as output a "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It is conjectured that it is computationally in feasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest.
/sbin/sha512 The md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, sha512t256, rmd160, skein256, skein512 and skein1024 utilities take as input a message of arbitrary length and produce as output a "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It is conjectured that it is computationally in feasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest.
/sbin/sha512t256 The md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, sha512t256, rmd160, skein256, skein512 and skein1024 utilities take as input a message of arbitrary length and produce as output a "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It is conjectured that it is computationally in feasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest.
/sbin/shutdown The shutdown utility provides an automated shutdown procedure for super users to nicely notify users when the system is shutting down, saving them from system administrators, hackers, and gurus, who would otherwise not bother with such niceties.
/sbin/skein256 The md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, sha512t256, rmd160, skein256, skein512 and skein1024 utilities take as input a message of arbitrary length and produce as output a "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It is conjectured that it is computationally in feasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest.
/sbin/skein512 The md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, sha512t256, rmd160, skein256, skein512 and skein1024 utilities take as input a message of arbitrary length and produce as output a "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It is conjectured that it is computationally in feasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest.
/sbin/skein1024 The md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512, sha512t256, rmd160, skein256, skein512 and skein1024 utilities take as input a message of arbitrary length and produce as output a "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. It is conjectured that it is computationally in feasible to produce two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having a given prespecified target message digest.
/sbin/spppcontrol The sppp(4) driver might require a number of additional arguments or optional parameters besides the settings that can be adjusted with

ifconfig(8). These are things like authentication protocol parameters, but also other tunable configuration variables. The spppcontrol utility can be used to display the current settings, or adjust these parameters as required.

/sbin/start-stop-daemon start-stop-daemon is used to control the creation and termination of system-level processes. Using one of the matching options, start-stop-daemon can be configured to find existing instances of a running process.
/sbin/supervise-daemon
/sbin/swapctl The swapon, swapoff and swapctl utilities are used to control swap devices in the system. At boot time all swap entries in /etc/fstab are added automatically when the system goes multi-user. Swap devices use a fixed interleave; the maximum number of devices is unlimited. There is no priority mechanism.
/sbin/swapoff The swapon, swapoff and swapctl utilities are used to control swap devices in the system. At boot time all swap entries in /etc/fstab are added automatically when the system goes multi-user. Swap devices use a fixed interleave; the maximum number of devices is unlimited. There is no priority mechanism.
/sbin/swapon The swapon, swapoff and swapctl utilities are used to control swap devices in the system. At boot time all swap entries in /etc/fstab are added automatically when the system goes multi-user. Swap devices use a fixed interleave; the maximum number of devices is unlimited. There is no priority mechanism.
/sbin/sysctl The sysctl utility retrieves kernel state and allows processes with appropriate privilege to set kernel state. The state to be retrieved or set is described using a "Management Information Base" ("MIB") style name, described as a dotted set of components. Example:sysctl kern.osreldate gives you the last kernel modification and the same result as uname -U. It is related to the FreeBSD release as a numerical output. See kern.osreldate
/sbin/tunefs The tunefs utility is designed to change the dynamic parameters of a UFS file system which affect the layout policies. The tunefs utility cannot be run on an active file system. To change an active file system, it must be downgraded to read-only or unmounted.
/sbin/umount The umount utility calls the unmount(2) system call to remove a file sys tem from the file system tree. The file system can be specified by its special device or remote node (rhost:path), the path to the mount point node or by the file system ID fsid as reported by "mount -v" when run by root.
/sbin/zfs The zfs command configures ZFS datasets within a ZFS storage pool, as de scribed in zpool(8). A dataset is identified by a unique path within the ZFS namespace.
/sbin/zfsbootcfg zfsbootcfg is used to set boot.config(5)-style options to be used by zfsboot(8) or gptzfsboot(8) the next time the machine is booted.
/sbin/zpool The zpool command configures ZFS storage pools. A storage pool is a col lection of devices that provides physical storage and data replication for ZFS datasets.
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